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campaign — a campaign of the Don parts of White army in Salsk steppes
in the winter-spring of 1918 (February-May). The military operation
directed on preservation of shots of the future Cossack army.
The White movement (Russian: Белое движение, tr. Beloye dvizheniye), whose military arm was the White Army (Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya) aka the White Guard (Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), and as the Whites (Белые and белогвардейцы “White Guardsmen”) comprised some of the politico-military Russian forces who unsuccessfully fought the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution and later the Red Army in the Russian Civil War (1917–23).
Structure and ideology
In the Russian context, White connoted three designations: (i) political contra-distinction to the Reds, whose revolutionary Red Army supported the Bolsheviks and Communism; (ii) historical reference to absolute monarchy, specifically united Russia's first Tsar, Ivan III (1462–1505), styled “Albus Rex” (“White King”); and (iii) sartorially, that some White Army soldiers wore the white uniforms of Imperial Russia.
The White Army was a loose confederation of counter-revolutionary forces; besides being anti-Bolshevik Russian patriots, being professional soldiers, most White Army officers had no ideology. Among White Army leaders, neither General Lavr Kornilov nor General Denikin were monarchists, yet General Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel was a monarchist willing to soldier for an elected, democratic Russian government. In the event, despite most White Army officers being monarchists, the White Army was not monarchist in purpose, despite publicly presenting itself as such; however, the White Army generally believed in a united multinational Russia, and opposed separatists wanting to create nation-states instead of the Tsarist Russian Empire. The White Army's rank-and-file comprised active anti-Bolsheviks, such as Cossacks, nobles, and peasants, as conscripts and volunteers.
Moreover, other political parties supported the anti-Bolshevik White Army, among them the democrats, the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, and others opposing Lenin's Bolshevik October Revolution; yet, according to the time and place, those White Army supporters also exchanged right-wing allegiance for allegiance with the Red Army.
Some White leaders, especially General Wrangel, formulated ideology based on Russian traditionalism, the concepts of which were assumed and developed by the White émigrés, at Civil War's end (1923), by intellectuals such as Ivan Ilyin; it philosophically resembled the Slavophiles' beliefs. That became the “White Idea”, either developed or formulated as doctrine after the civil war; most organised veterans (i.e. the Russian All-Military Union), did believe it.
Although monarchism peaked among the White Movement, liberal republicanism was rarer. The liberal policies of Alexander Kerensky and his socialist-democratic provisional government were mostly responsible for preparing Imperial Russia for the October Revolution in 1917. In August 1922, two months before being defeated, the Far Eastern White Army of General Mikhail Diterikhs convened the Zemskiy Sobor of Preamursk, and elected (without his participation) the Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaievich Romanov as Tsar of all Russia.
There also existed the independent militaries such as the Green Army and the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine aka the “Black Army” of Nestor Makhno, officially against the Communist Reds and the Monarchist Whites — although they did establish opportunistic alliances with either nemesis.
At times, the Western Allies, the Central Powers, and other foreign governments supported and armed White Army units, which allowed the Bolsheviks to accuse the White Army of anti-Russian treason, of representing the interests of foreign powers. Moreover, the White movement's anti-Semitism embarrassed its Western sponsors, given the Bolshevik's outlawing of anti-Semitism in Russia. Winston Churchill personally warned General Denikin, whose forces effected pogroms, that “my task in winning support in Parliament for the Russian Nationalist cause will be infinitely harder if well-authenticated complaints continue to be received from Jews in the zone of the Volunteer Armies“; General Denikin ignored Churchill's warnings, and the pogroms continued.